The good properties of nanomaterials among other carbon nanofibers, multiwalled and single carbon nanotubes make them a excellent candidate for the recovery toxic and valuable or strategic metals from liquid effluents coming from different industries residual waste water such as mining, tannery, chemical manufacturing etc. The constant progress make necessary a continuous study of different adsorption system with the development of new adsorbent and new adsorption condition.

 

   This goal of research are beingachieved with the knowledge of the group researcher and the technological offers by CENIM to study the best adsorption conditions of new nanomaterial-metal system.

 nano

 

    Publications

 

  • Alguacil, F. J., Cerpa, A., Lado, I., & López, F. A. (2014). Technologies for the 21st century: carbon nanotubes as adsorbents of metals. Revista de Metalurgia, 50(3), e025. http://doi.org/10.3989/revmetalm.025
  • Alguacil, F.J. Cerpa, A., Lado, M.I., López, F.A., Application of carbon-nanotubes for the recovery of valuable and toxic metals from liquid effluents. Environmental Workshop 2014: Processing ceramics from wastes: A new raw material source for a global change, 29 September-1 October, 2014, Baeza, Spain.
  • Alguacil, F.J.,López, F.A.,García Díaz, I., Extracting metals from aqueous solutions using Ti-based nanostructures. TNT2014 Conference. October 27-31, 2014. Barcelona, Spain
  • López F.A., Alguacil, F.J., Álvarez Centeno, T., Cerpa, A.,Utilización de nanotubos de carbono para la eliminación de metales tóxicos en aguas, CONAMA2014. 12 Congreso Nacional del Medio Ambiente. Noviembre 20-24, 2014, Madrid, España
  • López Gómez, F.A.,García Díaz, I.,Rodríguez Largo, O.,Alguacil, F.J.,Removal of metallic anions from aqueosus solutions by adsorption with Cyphos IL101 Ionic liquid-impregnated multiwalled carbon nanotubes. Iberoamerican Meeting on ionic Liquid. July 1, 2015. Madrid, Spain
  • Alguacil, F.J.,García Díaz, I., López Gómez, F.A., Rodríguez Largo, O., Functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes processes for ther recovery of valuable anions and pollutants. Fifth International Conference on Environmental Management, Engineering, Planning and Economics (CEMEPE 2015) and SECOTOX Conference. June 14-17, 2015. Mikonos, Grecia. Proceedings (ISBN 978-960-6865-86-2)
  • García Díaz, I., Alguacil, F.J.,Valdés, M.A., Rodríguez Largo, O., López, F.A.,Application of carbon nanofibers to recovery gold (III) from waste PCBs.NanoSpain Chemistry, March 12-15, 2015, Bilbao,Spain
  • Alguacil, F.J., García Díaz, I., López, F. A.,Liquid-liquid extraction of cadmiun (II) by TIOACI ionic liquid and its application to a TIOACI impregnated carbon nanotubes system. Fourt International Conference on Multifuncional, Hybrid and Nanomaterials. March 9-12, 2015, Sitges, Barcelona, Spain
  •  Alguacil, F.J., Cerpa, A., Lado, M.I., López, F.A. Extracting metals with carbon nanotubes: environmental possibilities.Key Engineering Materials Vol. 663 (2016) pp 157-165. http://dx.doi.org/10.402/www.scientific.net/KEM.663.157
  • Alguacil, F. J., Lopez, F. A., & Garcia-Diaz, I. (2015). Extracting metals from aqueous solutions using Ti-based nanostructures: a review. Desalination and Water Treatment, 1–13. http://doi.org/10.1080/19443994.2015.1087885

Large amount of solid waste and subproducts and liquid effluent are produced by different industries phosphogypsum (fertilizer), tin alloy, ilmenite, aluminium slgas (dross) etc. Nowadays the recycle, reuse of this solid waste and the elimination and recovery of toxic and valuable metal is a social challenge.

To achieve this goal in CENIM are carrying out research about the partial or total substitution of the raw material in stabilization and solidification technologies (cementitious material), new methodology to recover pure metals, the use of advances technologies to metals recover in liquid effluent, development of new extraction agent (ionic liquid), synthetic calcium aluminate slags and others.

wastes1wastes2

 

wastes3wastes4

 Advances technologies to metal recover (liquid ionic)

 

Publications

  •         Tayibi, H., Gascó, C., Navarro, N., López-Delgado, A., Álvarez, A., Yagüe, L., López, F. A. (2010). Valorización de fosfoyeso como material de construcción: Aspectos radiológicos. Materiales de Construcción, 61(304), 503–515. http://doi.org/10.3989/mc.2010.58910 
  •       López, F. A., López-Delgado, A., Padilla, I., Tayibi, H., & Alguacil, F. J. (2010). Formation of metacinnabar by milling of liquid mercury and elemental sulfur for long term mercury storage. The Science of the Total Environment, 408(20), 4341–5. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2010.07.008
  •         López, F. a., Gázquez, M., Alguacil, F. J., Bolívar, J. P., García-Díaz, I., & López-Coto, I. (2011). Microencapsulation of phosphogypsum into a sulfur polymer matrix: Physico-chemical and radiological characterization. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 192(1), 234–245. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2011.05.010
  •         Choura, M., Keskes, M., Tayibi, H., & Rouis, J. (2011). Investigation into the artificial ageing effects on the microstructure of an industrial solid waste treated with cement. Environmental Technology, 32(5-6), 625–32. http://doi.org/10.1080/09593330.2010.507635
  • Lozano, L. J., Godínez, C., de los Ríos, A. P., Hernández-Fernández, F. J., Sánchez-Segado, S., & Alguacil, F. J. (2011). Recent advances in supported ionic liquid membrane technology. Journal of Membrane Science, 376(1-2), 1–14. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.memsci.2011.03.036
  • De los Ríos, A. P., Hernández-Fernández, F. J., Alguacil, F. J., Lozano, L. J., Ginestá, A., García-Díaz, I., … Godínez, C. (2012). On the use of imidazolium and ammonium-based ionic liquids as green solvents for the selective recovery of Zn(II), Cd(II), Cu(II) and Fe(III) from hydrochloride aqueous solutions. Separation and Purification Technology, 97, 150–157. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.seppur.2012.02.040
  • Martín, M. I., López, F. A., & Torralba, J. M. (2012). Production of sponge iron powder by reduction of rolling mill scale. Ironmaking & Steelmaking, 39(3), 155–162. http://doi.org/10.1179/1743281211Y.0000000078
  • Contreras, M., Gázquez, M. J., García-Díaz, I., Alguacil, F. J., López, F. A., & Bolívar, J. P. (2013). Valorisation of waste ilmenite mud in the manufacture of sulphur polymer cement. Journal of Environmental Management, 128, 625–30. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2013.06.015
  • López-Delgado, A., López, F. A., Alguacil, F. J., Padilla, I., & Guerrero, A. (2012). A microencapsulation process of liquid mercury by sulfur polymer stabilization/solidification technology. Part I: Characterization of materials. Revista de Metalurgia, 48(1), 45–57. http://doi.org/10.3989/revmetalm.1133
  • López-Delgado, A., Guerrero, A., López, F. A., Pérez, C., & Alguacil, F. J. (2012). A microencapsulation process of liquid mercury by sulfur polymer stabilization/solidification technology. Part II: Durability of materials. Revista de Metalurgia, 48(1), 58–66. http://doi.org/10.3989/revmetalm.1137
  • Alguacil, F. J., Garcia-Diaz, I., & Lopez, F. A. (2013). Modeling of facilitated transport of Cr(III) using (RNH3+HSO4−) ionic liquid and pseudo-emulsion hollow fiber strip dispersion (PEHFSD) technology. Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, 19(4), 1086–1091. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jiec.2012.12.003
  • Regel-Rosocka, M., & Alguacil, F. J. (2013). Recent trends in metals extraction. Revista de Metalurgia, 49(4), 292–316. http://doi.org/10.3989/revmetalm.1344
  • Garcia-Diaz, I., Lopez, F. A., Alguacil, F. J., Bolivar, J. P., & Gazquez, M. (2013). Valorisation of two inorganic industrial wastes for manufacturing Sulphur polymer concrete. In Chemical Engineering Transactions (Vol. 34, pp. 115–120). Italian Association of Chemical Engineering - AIDIC. http://doi.org/10.3303/CET1334020
  • Alguacil, F. J., García-Díaz, I., & Lopez, F. (2013). Transport of Cr(VI) using an advanced membrane technology and (PJMTH + NO 3 − ) ionic liquid derived from amine Primene JMT as green chemicals. Desalination and Water Treatment, 51(37-39), 7201–7207. http://doi.org/10.1080/19443994.2013.775075 
  • García-Diaz, I., Alguacil, F. J., Gázquez, M., Bolivar, J. P., Coto, I. L., & López, F. A. (2013). Radon exhalation from phosphogypsum stabilized in sulfur polymer cement. Natural Science, 05(05), 646–652. http://doi.org/10.4236/ns.2013.55080
  • García-Díaz, I., López-Coto, I., Bolívar, J. P., Alguaci, F. J., Gázquez, M., & López, F. (2013). Stabilization of phosphogypsum by sulfur polymer. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, 25(8), 1041–1049.  http://doi.org/10.1061/(asce)mt.1943-5533.0000644
  • Alguacil, F. J., García-Díaz, I., & Lopez, F. (2013). Transport of Cr(VI) using an advanced membrane technology and (PJMTH + NO 3 − ) ionic liquid derived from amine Primene JMT as green chemicals. Desalination and Water Treatment, 51(37-39), 7201–7207. http://doi.org/10.1080/19443994.2013.775075
  • Alguacil, F. J., Garcia-Diaz, I., Lopez, F., & Rodriguez, O. (2014). Recycling of copper flue dust via leaching-solvent extraction processing. Desalination and Water Treatment, 56(5), 1202–1207. http://doi.org/10.1080/19443994.2014.963148
  • López, F. A., Sierra, M. J., Rodríguez, O., Millán, R., & Alguacil, F. J. (2014). Non-isothermal kinetics of the thermal desorption of mercury from a contaminated soil. Revista de Metalurgia, 50(1), e001. http://doi.org/10.3989/revmetalm.001
  • López F.A,Rodríguez, O., Alguacil, F.J., M. R. (2014). Mercury leaching from hazardous industrial wastes stablized by sulfur polymer encapsulation. Waste Management. http://doi.org/10.1016 / j.wasman.2014.10.009
  • López Díaz-Pavón, A., Cerpa, A., & Alguacila, F. J. (2014). Processing of indium (III) solutions  ion exchange with Lewatit K-2621 resin. Revista de Metalurgia, 50(2), e010. http://doi.org/10.3989/revmetalm.010
  • López, F. A., Alguacil, F. J., Rodríguez, O., Sierra, M. J., & Millán, R. (2015). Mercury leaching from hazardous industrial wastes stabilized by sulfur polymer encapsulation. Waste Management (New York, N.Y.), 35, 301–6. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2014.10.009
  • López, F. A., Tayibi, H., García-Díaz, I., & Alguacil, F. J. (2015). Thermal dehydratation kinetics of phosphogypsum. Materiales de Construcción, 65(319), e061. http://doi.org/10.3989/mc.2015.07214
  • López, F. A., Román, C. P., García-Díaz, I., & Alguacil, F. J. (2015). Oxidation and waste-to-energy output of aluminium waste packaging during incineration: A laboratory study. Waste Management (New York, N.Y.), 43, 162–7. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2015.06.025
  • Sierra, M. J., Millán, R., López, F. A., Alguacil, F. J., & Cañadas, I. (2015). Sustainable remediation of mercury contaminated soils by thermal desorption. Environmental Science and Pollution Research. http://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-015-5688-8
  • García Díaz, I., Gázquez, M.,Bolívar, J.P., López Gómez, F.A., Alguacil, F. J. (2015). Valorization of an inorganic industrial waste for manufacturing sulfur polymer cemeno. Macla, 20, 57–58.

Projets

  • Design, construction and validation of a pilot installation for a safe deposit of surplus mercury from the European industry.Unión Europea.LIFE Project(LIFE06/ENV/ES/PRE/03
  • Inmovilización mediante cementos de azufre de los radionucleidosnaturales existentes en balsas de fosfoyeso (Plan Nacional I+D+i CTQ2008-02012).

 

Patents

  • López Gómez, Félix Antonio, Alguacil, Francisco J., Procedimiento de obtención de aluminatos de calcio. P201531116 (2015) (Patente transferida a la empresa VORMOXZ, México)
  • López Gómez, Félix Antonio, Alguacil, Francisco J., Recuperación de Sn de alta pureza por electrorefino a partir de aleaciones de Sn que contienen Pb. P201431657 (2014) (Patente transferida a la empresa SANCUS ALEACIONES, S.A., España)
  • Procede de stabilization de phosphogypses pour la diminution des emissions de radionucleide. Brevet Marrocain, MA35037 (2014)

  • López, F.A., Alguacil,F.J.,López-Delgado,A., Tayibi,H.,García Díaz,I.,Gascó,C., Bolívar,J.P., Gázquez,M.J.,Procedimiento de estabilización de fosfoyesos para la disminución de las emisiones de radionucleidos naturales. ES201130409. PCT/ES2012/070178 (2011-2012)
  • López, F.A., López-Delgado, A., Alguacil, F.J., Alonso, M.,.Procedimiento de estabilización de mercurio líquido mediante cemento polimérico de azufre, vía sulfuro de mercurio.    ES 200930672 (2009).  PCT/ES2010/070547 (2011) (Patente transferida a la empresa Minas de Almadén y Arrayanes, S.A., España).
  • López, F.A., López-Delgado, A., Alguacil, F.J., Alonso, M.,.Method for stabilising liquid mercury using sulfur polymer cement, via mercury sulfide. US 20120322918 A1 (2013)
  • Torralba, J.M., Martín Hernández, M.I., López, F.A., Procedimiento de obtención de esponjas metálicas. ES 2342815 (2010).

    Composites reinforced with carbon or glass fibres production surpasses 10 millons tons. Large quantities of waste are produced during the production of such composites. Recycling is an alternative of disposal of this kind of waste in landfills.  During the recycling of this kind of waste employing the thermolysis and gasification process, different products are obtained, such as oils, gases with high gross calorific values, and a solid residue, consisting on the recovered fibers.  The recovered fibers retain most of their physical properties.  The carbon fibers may be reused to manufacture new composites.  The glass fibers can be used to manufacture ceramic materials or incorporated.
 
Imagen1Imagen2

                                 Initial waste produced during the production of prepreg  and scrap and defective materials

 

Imagen4Imagen5

SEM photomicrographs of carbon fibers (a) and glass fibers (b) recovered after thermolysis and gasification

 

   Publications

 

  •     López, F. A., Martín, M. I., Alguacil, F. J., Rincón, J. M., Centeno, T. A., & Romero, M. (2012). Thermolysis of fibreglass polyester composite and reutilisation of the glass fibre residue to obtain a glass–ceramic material. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, 93, 104–112. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaap.2011.10.003
  •      López, F. A., Rodríguez, O., Alguacil, F. J., García-Díaz, I., Centeno, T. A., García-Fierro, J. L., & González, C. (2013). Recovery of carbon fibres by the thermolysis and gasification of waste prepreg. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, 104, 675–683. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaap.2013.04.012
  •     Criado, M., García-Díaz, I., Bastidas, J. M., Alguacil, F. J., López, F. A., & Monticelli, C. (2014). Effect of recycled glass fiber on the corrosion behavior of reinforced mortar. Construction and Building Materials, 64, 261–269. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2014.04.049
  •     Martín, M. I., López, F. A., Alguacil, F. J., & Romero, M. (2014). Development of crystalline phases in sintered glass-ceramics from residual E-glass fibres. Ceramics International, 40(2), 2769–2776. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ceramint.2013.10.040
  •    Martín, M. I., López, F. A., Alguacil, F. J., & Romero, M. (2015). Technical Characterization of Sintered-Glass Ceramics Derived from Glass Fibers Recovered by Pyrolysis. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, 27(4), 04014150. http://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)MT.1943-5533.0001090

   Projets

  •       Reciclado de fibras de carbono mediante pirolisis para el refuerzo de nuevos composites de carbono. National Research Plan, CTM2013-48887-C2-2-R (MINECO) (2013-2017)

 

   Awards

  •      Premio R. Ecoembes (2013)
  •     R3FIBER. Recycling technology for wind turbine blades. Repsol Foundation

  • Energy recovery includes any process that converts waste material into energy. Some non-recycling waste, which may contain higher energy value than coal, are able to be converted into energy, such as electricity, or alternative fuels like synthetic gas. Energy recovery technologies like waste-to-energy complement recycling and reduce waste that would otherwise be sent to landfills. 
  • Non-recycling waste (end-of-life tyres; biomass, plastics …), however, are being transformed right now into alternative energy through advanced energy recovery technologies like waste-to-energy and plastics or tyres-to-oil. Waste-to-energy facilities produce clean, renewable energy in the form of electricity or heat, while plastics or tyres-to-oil transforms non-recycled plastic or tyres into a valuable commodity, creating a reliable source for alternative energy from an abundant, no-cost feedstock

piro1piro2

     Pyrolysis demonstration plant for energy recovery from waste |  Pilot plant extraction and distillation for obtaining biofuels 

 

piro3piro4

 

                                      Bio-char                                                                                               Bio-fuels

 

   Publications
 
  • López, F. A., Centeno, T. A., Alguacil, F. J., & Lobato, B. (2011). Distillation of granulated scrap tires in a pilot plant. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 190(1-3), 285–92. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2011.03.039
    L
    ópez, F. A., Centeno, T. A., Alguacil, F. J., Lobato, B., López-Delgado, A., & Fermoso, J. (2012). Gasification of the char derived from distillation of granulated scrap tyres. Waste Management (New York, N.Y.), 32(4), 743–52. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2011.08.006
  • LÓPEZ, F. A., EL HADAD, A. A., ALGUACIL, F. J., CENTENO, T. A., & LOBATO, B. (2013). Kinetics of the Thermal Degradation of Granulated Scrap Tyres: a Model-free Analysis. Materials Science, 19(4), 403–408. http://doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.19.4.2947
  • López, F. a., Centeno, T. A., Alguacil, F. J., Lobato, B., & Urien, A. (2013). The GRAUTHERMIC-Tyres process for the recycling of granulated scrap tyres. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, 103, 207–215. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaap.2012.12.007
  • López, F. A., Centeno, T. A., Rodríguez, O., & Alguacil, F. J. (2013). Preparation and characterization of activated carbon from the char produced in the thermolysis of granulated scrap tyres. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association, 63(5), 534–544. http://doi.org/10.1080/10962247.2013.763870
  • López, F. A., Centeno, T. A., García-Díaz, I., & Alguacil, F. J. (2013). Textural and fuel characteristics of the chars produced by the pyrolysis of waste wood, and the properties of activated carbons prepared from them. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, 104, 551–558. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaap.2013.05.014
  • López, F. A., Rodríguez, O., Urien, A., Lobato, B., Centeno, T. Á., & Alguacil, F. J. (2013). Physico-Chemical Characteristics of the Products Derived from the Thermolysis of Waste Abies alba Mill Wood. Journal of Environmental Protection, 04(01), 26–30. http://doi.org/10.4236/jep.2013.41003
    Projects
  •      Instalación pre-industrial de tratamiento de biomasa vegetal secundaria para la obtención materias primas y de ácidos piroleñosos y energía eléctrica. CDTI (xxxxxx) (2010-2011)
 
    Patents
  • •   LÓPEZ GÓMEZ, Félix Antonio; ALGUACIL PRIEGO, Francisco José; ÁLVAREZ CENTENO, Teresa; LOBATO ORTEGA, Belén; GRAU ALMIRALL, José; GRAU GARCÍA, Roger; GRAU GARCÍA, Ferrán; GRAU GARCÍA, Oriol; Method and  unit for processing end-of-life tyres. WO2012/072842A1.   PCT/ES2011/070148 (2012) (Patente transferida a la empresa ENRECO 2000 S.L., España)